placed in context of the recently approved ASTM Practice E alternative means of executing this ASTM Practice, its objective being to minimize . E – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Referenced Documents ASTM Standards:3 D Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity. improper air/fuel ratio. There are test methods for laboratory grade FTIR measurement as well as for portable field testing. ASTM E describes the standard.
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Home E E July 24, Author: E — 10 Standard Practice for Condition Monitoring of In-Service Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR Spectrometry1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the w2412 of last reapproval. The infrared data generated by this practice is typically used in conjunction with other testing methods.
For example, infrared spectroscopy cannot determine wear metal levels or any other type e24412 elemental analysis. The practice as presented is not intended for the prediction of lubricant physical properties for example, viscosity, total base number, total acid number, etc.
This practice is designed for monitoring in-service lubricants and can aid in the determination of general machinery health and is not designed for the analysis of lubricant composition, lubricant performance or additive package formulations.
No other units of measurement are included in this standard. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Contaminants monitored include water, soot, ethylene glycol, fuels and incorrect oil.
Oxidation, zstm and sulfonation of base stocks are monitored as evidence of degradation. The objective of this monitoring activity is to asgm the operational condition of the machine based on fault conditions observed in the oil.
Measurement and data interpretation parameters are presented to allow operators of different FT-IR spectrometers to compare results by employing the same techniques. While calibration to generate physical concentration units may be possible, it is unnecessary or impractical in many cases.
Warning or alarm limits the point where maintenance action on a machine f2412 monitored is recommended or required can be determined through statistical analysis, history of the same or similar equipment, round robin tests or other methods in conjunction with correlation to equipment performance.
These warning or alarm limits can be a fixed maximum or minimum value for comparison to a single measurement or can also be based on a rate of change of the response measured 1. Such satm should be established in conjunction with advice and guidance from the machinery manufacturer and maintenance group.
Current edition approved May 1, Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as E— Summary of Practice 4. Exact data acquisition parameters will vary depending on instrument manufacturer but qstm systems should be able to collect an absorbance spectrum adequate for most measurements in less than one minute.
Features in the infrared spectrum indicative of the molecular level components of interest 1,7 that is, water, fuel, antifreeze, additive, degradation, and so forth are measured and reported. Condition alerts and alarms can then be triggered according to both the level and the trends from the monitored system.
ASTM E2412 – 10
Significance and Use 5. A number of physical property tests complement wear metal analysis and are used to provide information on lubricant condition for example, Test Methods D, D, and D Molecular analysis of lubricants and hydraulic fluids by FT-IR spectroscopy produces direct information on molecular species of interest, including additives, fluid breakdown products and external contaminants, and thus complements wear metal and other analyses used in a condition monitoring program 1, Alternate source, beamsplitter and detector combinations covering this range are commercially available but have not been investigated for use in this practice.
Other detectors may be suitable but should be used with caution. In particular, liquid nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride MCT detectors are known to exhibit significant nonlinearities. Here, there are a large number of different oxidation and nitration compounds that can be produced and gradually build up in the oil. However, water levels of this magnitude will immediately condemn the lubricant.
Various additive packages, such as detergents, dispersants, antioxidants, overbase additives, etc. Blends of petroleum lubricants with significant amounts of ester, whether part of the base-stock package or as an additive, will absorb strongly in the oxidation area. These lubricants are not presented at this time.
Spectral characteristics of diesel Figs. Work is currently active on other IR measurement areas and techniques. The measurement listed can be used as a guideline but is not intended to be the only infrared based fuel contamination measurement.
An independent test, such as viscosity change, flash point, or gas chromatography can be used to confirm an indication of fuel presence in the FT-IR spectrum of the oil. Spectral characteristics of glycol contamination are shown in Fig. In these systems, the most common parameters measured are water contamination and oxidative breakdown of the oil, which are presented in Table A1.
In these systems, unlike the crankcase oils, however, interactions between water and the EP additives alter the infrared response, and thus water is measured differently than in the crankcase lubricants.
Water contamination is manifested as a general, horizontal baseline offset of the entire infrared spectrum. Here, the integrated area for the spectrum representing ppm 0. However, typical gearboxes and hydraulic systems will not contain particulate levels high enough to cause a significant baseline offset and tilt.
Wear metal analysis, particle counting or other applicable tests should condemn gear and hydraulic systems that manifest such extreme particulate levels. Note that while Fig.
In addition, many aero-derivative gas turbines are used in power generation, marine transport and other non-aeronautical applications. In 6 E — 10 increases as the lubricant breaks down. This ester base-stock breakdown II area is also monitored as a measurement of degradation of the polyol ester lubricants. The breakdown II region is also highlighted in Fig. Excessive water levels may cause the lubricant breakdown reading to be higher than the actual level.
Once again however, water levels of this magnitude will condemn the lubricant irrespective of the actual breakdown level. For this reason, the measurement area developed for monitoring levels and trends of ZDDP has been found to be equally useful for monitoring tricresyl phosphate TCP. As previously noted, building calibration curves for measurement parameters when pure or prepared e22412 are available is possible. However, this is not necessary, as lubricant condition monitoring requires only reliable, repeatable measurements.
Correlation of FT-IR f2412 to physical values is not necessary. In most cases, identifying the presence of a foreign fluid is all that is required to generate an appropriate maintenance response.
The wide variety of potential contaminants suggests an equally wide variety of measurement methods may be desirable. In addition, multiple frequency distributions may also be required and are not given here. The measurement areas given in Table A1. Under severe conditions of lubricant degradation, this band will begin to overlap and contribute to the integrated water measurement area.
As seen below in Fig. The most common degradation pathway in ester based lubricants is the conversion of the ester into organic acids and alcohols. As this area is closely associated with the water measurement area, a localized, single—point baseline at cm-1 provides a correction for low levels of water buildup Fig. Spectral characteristics of diesel and other noted fuels have been found to vary.
Checking suspect fuel sources is suggested to verify presence of indicator absorbance bands. Spectral characteristics of noted fuels have been found to vary. However, the converse is not true since glycol has other spectral features that are used for detection and quantification.
Therefore, when glycol is present, water can be detected but not reliably quantified using FT-IR. This is not considered a problem because of the greater significance the presence of glycol has to engine operation. It is usually only xstm consideration in diesel engines but could be indicative of carburetor or injector problems with other fuel systems.
While soot has no specific frequency of absorption in the infrared aztm, it causes a shift in the baseline of the spectrum due to asym and scattering of light. Since there are no other spectral features in the region at cm-1, this area is used to assess the level of soot in a sample as is shown in Fig. Because the soot absorbance obtained is a measure of the amount of tilt in the spectral baseline, a correction should be applied to the data to account for the contribution of the transmission cell to the baseline tilt if the background is taken without the cell in the beam path.
This value can be significant in the case of a ZnSe cell, on the order of 0. The baseline shift caused by soot is affected by the amount of soot present and the effective particle size.
The effective particle size is determined by the nature of the combustion system and the dispersants in the oil. This fact makes it difficult to directly assess or calibrate the quantity astmm soot, so factors that relate the amount of soot to the infrared absorbance value must be established with the engines and lubricants of interest. These have been identified as lactones, esters, r2412, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylate salts. This feature is shown in Fig. The baseline for carbonyl oxidation measurement, referred to as oxidation, is taken at cm-1 and the maximum peak height between and cm-1 is determined.
ASTM E – standard practice for Condition Monitoring of Used Lubricants by FT-IR Spectrometry.
Alternatively, some labs measure the absorbance of the peak closest to cm-1 relative to a single-point baseline at cm The broadness of the atm is a result of the wide variety of materials present. The point of maximum intensity will vary as the oil and conditions of its use are changed. The increase in peak height that occurs as the number of hours the oil has been run in the engine increases has significance in the measurement of degradation related to TAN and viscosity.
Measurement parameters for petroleum lubricants are presented.
As data becomes available, other lubricant types can be added to the annex. This approach will generate incorrect results, particularly astk antifreeze, fuel and water.
It is better to make a choice of lubricant type and use it consistently if the oil type is not known. If an appropriate reference astmm cannot be obtained, spectral subtraction should not be performed. The analysis parameters for spectral subtraction are similar to those for the direct trending approach. Different laboratories have developed slight variations on these analyses.
These different approaches are equally valid for trending but will produce results that differ numerically. Consistent analyses should be applied for each application.